Database management is a system for managing information that aids the business operations of an organization. It involves storing data and distribution to application programs and users making changes as needed and monitoring changes to the data and preventing the data from becoming corrupted due to unexpected failure. It is a part of the overall informational infrastructure of a business that aids in decision-making, corporate growth, and compliance with laws like the GDPR and California Consumer Privacy Act.
In the 1960s, Charles Bachman and IBM along with other companies developed the first database systems. They developed into information management systems (IMS) which allowed large amounts of data to be stored and retrieved for a variety of purposes. From calculating inventory to aiding complicated financial accounting functions, and human resource functions.
A database is a set of tables that organizes data in accordance with a certain scheme, like one-to-many relationships. It uses primary keys to identify records and allows cross-references between tables. Each table contains a number of fields, called attributes, that contain information about the entities that comprise the data. Relational models, created by E. F. “Ted” Codd in the 1970s at IBM and IBM, are among the most well-known database type currently. This design is based upon normalizing data to make it more user-friendly. It is also easier to update data because it doesn’t require the modification of several databases.
Most DBMSs support multiple types of databases by offering different internal and external levels of organization. The internal level is concerned with costs, scalability and other operational issues, including the physical layout of the database. The external level is the representation of the database on user interfaces and applications. It could include a mix of various external views (based on different data models) and may also include virtual tables which are generated from generic data in order to improve performance.